Budaya Transmisi vs Otoritas Kanoni

Sejak hadits dibukukan pada abad ke 4 Hijrah/10 Masehi, keabsahan budaya transmisi (culture of transmission) atau populer disebut sanad mulai ditinggalkan banyak pakar bahkan hingga saat ini. Walhasil, perselisihan, tuduhan, hingga klaim kepemilikan otoritas akan sabda Nabi Saw. tersebut mengemuka di kalangan mereka. Garrett Davidson menunjukkan hal itu dengan sangat baik dalam bukunya Carryng of The Tradition: A Social and Intellectual History of Hadith Transmission across a Thousand Years. Bagi banyak pakar, ahli hukum khususnya menganggap budaya transmisi harus ditinggalkan. Budaya ini dianggap metode usang karena ke-tidak-praktisannya. Namun tidak bagi ahli hadits, bagaimanapun, budaya transmisi lebih dari metode ilmiah biasa, ia adalah wujud eksistensi agama.

Problem Otentisitas

Sebelum abad keempat hijrah, tepatnya dalam tiga abad pertama lahirnya islam, metode yang digunakan dalam menerima dan menyampaikan hadits adalah dengan cara oral. Cara ini sederhana, setelah Nabi Saw. wafat, sahabat kemudian menyampaikan apa yang mereka ingat kepada generasi setelahnya, dan pada gilirannya generasi setelahnya menyampaikan lagi kepada generasi berikutnya, dan seterusnya. Dalam perjalanannya, budaya transmisi ini berubah serius karena pergolakan politik di masa awal-awal islam. Pergolakan yang menjual nama Nabi demi kepentingan individu ataupun kelompok berakibat lahirnya keraguan mengenai kemurnian dan otentisitas hadits. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, sebagaimana diungkap Ibn Sirin, para pakar mengharuskan orang-orang yang membawa-bawa nama Nabi jelas kredibilitasnya, setidaknya orang-orang ini mampu menunjukkan rantai keterhubungannya dengan Nabi Saw.

Keharusan menunjukkan kredibilitas yang dimaksud bertahan hingga akhir abad ketiga hijrah. Di masa-masa ini, sebagian karena pengaruh Imam Syafi’i, kualitas hadits sangat bergantung dari kekuatan rantai keterhubungannya dengan Nabi. Konsekwensinya adalah perjalanan mencari hadits untuk mendengar dan mendapatkan langsung dari perawinya menjadi bagian yang tidak trepisahkan dari pekerjaan para pengkaji hadits. Keadaan berubah di abad keempat, seiring dengan proses kanonisasi (pembukuan hadits), pelan tapi pasti membuat banyak dari mereka, utamanya ahli hukum tidak begitu peduli lagi mengutip rantai keterhubungan hadits. Bagi mereka, otoritas kanoni sudah cukup untuk dikutip tanpa perlu membuang-buang waktu yang lama mengembara kesana-kemari mencari dan menerima hadits. Betapa tidak praktisnya pekerjaan mereka jika harus mengembara dulu. Sikap para ahli hukum ini menegaskan dua hal. Pertama, budaya transmisi secara tidak langsung telah terhenti. Kedua, memberi otoritas baru pada kitab-kitab hadits (otoritas kanoni) meski tanpa melalui jalur keterhubungan kepada Nabi Saw.

Perselisihan dan Penyelesaian  

Di abad kelima hijrah, ketegangan antara peminat budaya transmisi dan otoritas kanoni mengemuka. Imam al-Juwayni, Maliki Abu al-Walid al-Baji, al-Aghazali, Ibn Khayr al-Ishbili, dan sejarawan Ibn Athir adalah sedikit dari banyak pakar yang mengemukakan terjadinya ketegangan. Ahli hukum yang menggunakan hadits sebagai bahan menghasilkan perundang-perundangan menganggap cukup memanfaatkan otoritas kanoni dalam pekerjaan mereka. Sebaliknya, ahli hadits menentang praktek ahli hukum, bagi mereka konsekwensi hukum hanya dapat ditarik dari budaya transmisi para ahli hadits, terlebih kitab hadits yang mereka rujuk tidak akan memiliki otoritas jika tidak diaktifkan melalui referensi ke rantai keterhubungan kepada Nabi Saw.

Ibn Salah dapat dikatakan sebagai penengah perselisihan antara peminat budaya transmisi dan otoritas kanoni. Melalui kaca mata ideologi, ia me-rekonseptualisasi budaya transmisi sehingga diangap penting untuk tidak ditinggalkan. Ibn Salah menerima bahwa posisi ahli hadits sebagai pelestari budaya transmisi pasca dibukukannya hadits di abad keempat adalah posisi yang tidak ideal sehingga mereka perlu melakukan perubahan. Ibn Salah lebih lanjut mengembangkan pembenaran bahwa budaya transmisi tetap harus dipertahankan bukan karena ia sekedar budaya ilmiah penerimaan hadits, namun lebih dari itu ia merupakan wujud esensi agama. Dengan bahasa yang sederhana, Ibn Salah ataupun pakar yang lain ingin mengatakan bahwa budaya transmisi harus tetap dipertahanakan namun dengan konsep baru (reconceptualization) yang sebelumnya tidak digunakan. Lebih jauh term rekonseptualisasi dapat diejawantah sebagai berikut:

Pertama, budaya transmisi adalah ciri khas. Budaya transmisi atau populer disebut sanad adalah bagian dari agama. Abdullah bin al-Mubarak secara tegas mengungkapakan hal ini sebagaiamana tertuang dalam Sahih Muslim al-isnad min al-din. Maksud ungkapan ini secara ringkas menegaskan penafian budaya transmisi sama saja menafikan agama. Kedua, budaya transmisi adalah berkah pembeda. Bagi Ibn Salah, dan banyak pakar sebelumnya semisal Abu Thalib al-Makki, Abu Abdillah al-Hakim, dan Al-Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi budaya transmisi menjadi penting sebagai pembeda komunitas muslim dengan komunitas-komuitas agama sebelumnya yaitu Yahudi dan Nashara. Karena ia adalah pembeda, maka ia tidak bisa dinafikan. Menafikannya sama saja menyamakan komunitas muslim dengan komunitas sebelumnya.

Ketiga, budaya transmisi adalah pembenaran. Pembenaran yang dimaksud disini adalah pembenaran fungsi hadits sebagaimana al-Qur’an yang dalam perjalanan historisnya mengalami performasi. Ketika budaya transmisi tidak boleh diusangkan, maka me-rekonseptulaisasi budaya transmisi ini secara tidak langsung telah melahirkan satu otoritas baru yang disebut otoritas sistem periwayatan (the narrative system) dimana budaya ini tidak lagi concern  pada nilai objektif dari sebuah hadits melainkan nilai naratifnya saja. Dengan kata lain budaya transimi telah berubah wujud dari yang awalnya kegiatan biasa berubah menjadi kegiatan suci yang terinstitusikan ideologi dan berkonsekwensi pada nilai yang dihasilkan. Peran ijaza sangat krusial dalam kegiatan suci yang terinstitusikan ideologi ini.

Terakhir, tetap bertahannya budaya transmisi yang telah menerima perubahan ini bukan tanpa manfaat. Penerimaan budaya transmisi terhadap perubahan justru melahirkan banyak disiplin baru. Tidak hanya dalam disiplin ilmu hadits namun juga ilmu-ilmu lain seperti sejarah dan biografi.

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